27th October 2020
about-brain-of-all-human-kind

Feminism: Male, Female, or Transsexual Which Brain is Larger and Smarter?

Transexuals might have an extraordinary, brilliant, and courageous brain. What they will be is the god’s choice, but it’s a task for them to realize and stand courageously against all odds of this world of cultures and society.

 We often came across transsexuals and abrupt questions strike the mind such as why does a male may want to be a female and vice versa. We never knew that it is the minute differences in their brains which led them to think or feel so and later doctors induce the complete change required in their brain and body via hormones so that they change even physically.

There is a term called feminism, the aim of feminism is about the fact that male and female are equal. The feminist goes extreme including me to prove this and stand in favor of the slogan, but what if nature didn’t want the same. Feminism: Male and female brains are quite different both in physiology and function. Let’s explore brain drama.

There are some gender-specific molecules that are responsible for a female to be a female and a male to be a male, but more or less all the molecules are present in both the genders in some proportions.  Two such specific molecules are Estrogen in females and testosterone in males.   Estrogen is known as one of the most important biomolecules in females. The importance of

estrogen varies with gender reigning over different functions and is more important in females than in males. This is majorly the molecule that makes you female and responsible for the development of primary and secondary sex organs.

The gonads (ovary and testis) are the primary sites of estrogen synthesis, estrogens synthesized in extragonadal sites play an equally important role in controlling biological activities. Extragonadal organs, including the adrenal glands, brain, adipose tissue, skin, pancreas. Androgens were converted to estrogens in adipose tissue. But where do the estrogen come in mothers womb to determine whether it will be a female or a male, or is it something else which results in sex determination in mothers  womb (This topic will be soon covered in another blog).

There are several studies that made it clear that although estrogen is considered as the female sex hormone and is often believed to be harmful in males it could or have positive effects in males also in certain clinical cases. Let us come back to the fact that not only physical appearance estrogen is also responsible for brain development and thought processing in males and females. The gender of a human does influence both behavior and brain and interestingly Estrogen plays a major role in doing so. Let’s have a look at the physiological difference between male and female brains.

The brain and hypothalamus of males tend to have more volume as compared to females, in human adults. Hypothalamus consisted of a preoptic nucleus twice as large in males as in females. The studies which compared the gray and white matter fractions in both the genders interestingly found that females have a higher fraction of gray matter, whereas adult males had a higher fraction of white matter. There exists a difference in using the brain among males and females (see the picture below).

Males and Females uses these parts of the brain

In rodents (rats), differential exposure to sex hormones during perinatal brain development seems to be the main reason for brain differences between the opposite sexes. Exposure to high levels of testosterone during the perinatal period results in differentiation of the brain like a male brain structure. And the absence of androgen exposure results in the formation of female brain structure in humans. Testosterone is probably responsible to exert its masculinizing influence on the brain during prenatal development. Finally, several studies hypothesize that sex hormones circulating in adulthood are essential for the maintenance of sex differences in humans.

Did you ever imagine the brain of transsexuals? Seemingly, yes some of us have often thought why do they feel so, or how do they change their genders.

Transsexualism is the state in which a person with an entirely normal physiological appearance of either male or female is somehow convinced that they are actually a member of the opposite sex. This sense or feeling is so pronounced and strong at times that they persistently feel it from an innermost entity that eventually transsexuals end up seeking treatment to physically change their bodies from a male into female or vice versa as far as possible clinically.

The answer to why do they feel so is apparently due to overexpression of molecules similar to opposite-sex or cross-sex hormones. Male and female, though possessing all the same molecules or hormones or other molecules, but they definitely differ in terms of quantity. Some hormones are high in females and some are high in males similarly some are too low in males and some are too low in females, which creates a complete balance to keep a male a man and a female a woman, both by thoughts and physical appearance.

The confusion - Feminism transsexual which brain is larger and smarter

There is an enormous influence of exposure to high levels of cross-sex hormones (for eg. Estrogen and testosterone) on brain structures in transsexual adulthood. A few studies during the post-mortem of brain structure in transsexuals have been conducted. Normally in the hypothalamus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminals is larger in males as compared to females. Interestingly these bed nuclei were found to be equal to the female size in six Male to Female transited transsexuals and the bed nucleus were found to be of male size in one Female to Male transition human.

All these transsexuals were given the cross-sex hormone treatment before their brains were studied. Therefore, there may be two reasons for their altered brain structures, First is maybe the difference in brain size due to the treatment with cross-sex hormones. Alternatively,  it is also possible that the different sizes and structures if brain components in transsexuals could have been present prior to cross-sex hormones treatment. This difference in their brain might have reflected in the feelings that they belong to the opposite sex.

Some studies have also declared that the treatment of Male to Female transiting body with estrogens and anti-androgens decreases the male brain size towards female proportions. The treatment of female to male transition body with androgens (not substantially affecting circulating estrogen levels) increases the female brain size towards male proportions.

Now imagine the transsexuals, who underwent transitions, once had a brain quality of one gender and later acquired the brain of the other. O WOW..!!! I think you are not getting my point. What I mean is about the fact that they have extra powers in terms of thinking ability, they can use all the parts of the brain as a male or female would individually use. This makes them too good in mechanics which boys are good at and multitasking which girls are good at. Transsexuals may have the highest level of patience and critical thinking abilities, they just need to realize this and make it applicable.

Conclusively, you need to realize your powers be it a male, a female, or a trans person, You are always utilizing the less of you. More is there to be unraveled.

References

GoldsteinJM Seidman LJ Horton NJ Makris N Kennedy DN Caviness VS Jr Faraone SV & Tsuang MT. Normal sexual dimorphism of the adult human brain assessed by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebral Cortex200111490–497.

SwaabDF & Fliers E. A sexually dimorphic nucleus in the human brain. Science19852281112–1115.

GurRC Turetsky BI Matsui M Yan M Bilker W Hughett P & Gur RE. Sex differences in brain gray and white matter in healthy young adults: correlations with cognitive performance. Journal of Neuro-science1999154065–4072.

LemaitreH Crivello F Grassiot B Alperovitch A Tzourio C & Mazoyer B. Age- and sex-related effects on the neuroanatomy of healthy elderly. Neuroimage200526900–911.

De VriesGJ & Simerly RB. In Hormones Brain and Behavior pp 137–191. Eds DW Pfaff AP Arnold AM Etgen SE Fahrbach RL Moss & RT Rubin San Diego: Academic Press 2002.

BreedloveSM & Hampson E. Sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior. In Behavioral Endocrinology pp 75–114. Eds JB Becker SM Breedlove D Crews & MM McCarthy MIT Press: Cambridge 2002.

ZhouJN Hofman MA Gooren LJ & Swaab DF. A sex difference in the human brain and its relation to transsexuality. Nature199537868–70.

KruijverFP Zhou JN Pool CW Hofman MA Gooren LJ & Swaab DF. Male-to-female transsexuals have female neuron numbers in a limbic nucleus. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism2000852034–2041.

Has this helped you? Then please share with your network.

One thought on “Feminism: Male, Female, or Transsexual Which Brain is Larger and Smarter?

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *